You have just bought an old property, or you are having your house built. The renovation of the old frame or the construction of the structure is the next step of your work. But such an element requires the use of solid and durable materials. What type of wood for a frame? Chestnut, oak, spruce, maritime pine… it all depends on the type of framework, its resistance, its humidity level, and your budget.
Criteria of choice, families of wood, advantages, destination, and price, we give you all the keys in hand to make the best choice! The framework is a basic element of the structure of your home, and wood is a material with which it can be made and has several advantages. Discover in this article the type of wood for a durable frame.
The different types of wood for the frame
Each type of wood does not have the same characteristics in front of humidity. On the other hand, the choice of wood depends on the type of frame.
Wood from hardwoods
These woods come from trees that grow in winter. Oak, poplar, or beech are the wood species that are most commonly found in our homes. These species are differentiated according to their durability and robustness. But beyond these classic species, there are also exotic woods such as iroko and cumaru, which present resistant and aesthetic aspects:
- Oak: used for the structure of traditional frameworks, it can be found in the renovation of old frameworks. This wood must be dried for several years before it can be used in construction. It resists humidity and condensation.
- Ash: transparent and elastic, this wood has a great hardness and a marked veining.
- Beech: it is a hard and heavy wood that does not tolerate humidity. It is better suited for cabinet making and flooring than for carpentry.
- Poplar: Also, for traditional carpentry, poplar is affordable. However, it needs a dry environment to avoid insects and fungi.
- Chestnut: for exterior cladding or roofing, it is resistant to parasites and insects.
- Iroko: it is resistant to sun and UV rays, with an aesthetic appearance of a brown color.
Wood from resinous trees
These woods contain resin from the softwood family, such as spruce or fir. Your frame will have different varieties of wood species depending on the purpose of the room. You can, for example, use oak for the beams or fir for the rafters:
- Spruce and fir: are the wood species most used in traditional or industrial framing.
- Douglas fir: with consequent durability and fast growth, this wood is privileged in the frameworks of ecological constructions.
- The larch: made of resin, it resists drought in altitude as well as bad weather. Larch is widely used for carpentry, cladding, and joinery.
The different criteria of a good wood
Class of use
To be used in carpentry, the wood must belong to at least use class 2. This includes oak (naturally) or fir (after special treatment). The use class defines the resistance to humidity and weathering. For exterior carpentry, the use of class 3 is required.
Lumber must meet various strength criteria such as tension, compression, etc… To ensure the strength of the frame, it is necessary to sort the wood at the beginning of the manufacturing process in order to remove pieces of wood that have large knots or resin pockets.
The different types of wooden frames
- Traditional framework: it adapts perfectly to the different roofs and coverings.
- Truss: this type of frame requires much more space under the roof. So, this is not the solution if you are doing an attic conversion.
- Custom-made frame: for personalized houses
- Kit frame: for classic houses.
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